Kazakhstan, republic in Central Asia, bounded on the north by Russia, on the east by China, on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan, and on the west by Caspian Sea and Russia. Almost all of Kazakhstan is located in the central portion of the Asian continent; however, a small part of the republic lies west of the Ural River on the European continent. Astana, located in northern Kazakhstan, replaced Almaty as republic’s capital in 1997.
Kazakhstan was part of USSR from 1922 until December 1991, when it become independent.
Kazakhstan covers an area of 2,717,300 sq.km, making it by far the lagest country in Central Asia.
In 2017 Kazakhstan had an estimated population of 18 millions. About 60 percent of the population lives in urban areas.
The official language of Kazakhstan is Kazakh. Russian is the most widely spoken language in Kazakhstan and the primary language of interethnic communication. Government officials may use Kazakh and Russian for administrative purposes.
The economy of Kazakhstan is based on its agricultural and mineral resources. Abundant fossil-fuel, metal ores and other mineral resources lie beneath the land.